Sierra Leone is bordered for the north-west, south west and north-east simply by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and even on south-west by simply the Atlantic Sea. It has a good area of twenty-seven, 925 square mls. The colony involving Sierra Leone originated from the sale and even cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of any piece associated with land intended like a home for African-american settlers who were waifs in London and even later it seemed to be used as a settlement for separated African slaves. Typically the hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence about 27th April, 1961 and became a new Republic in 1971. Education is provided by both non-public and state-sponsored schools. The current program of education will be 6-3-4-4 (that is definitely six years Primary school, 36 months Junior Secondary School, four years Senior Second School and 4 many years tertiary/higher education. This system is accompanied by non- official education.
CONCEPT REGARDING EDUCATION
Education is frequently found in the sense of coaching in the class, laboratory, workshop or domestic science room and consists principally within the imparting by the teacher, and even the acquisition simply by pupils, of details and mental because well as guide skills. A larger meaning than training is that associated with schooling. That is to say almost all that goes on inside the school because part of the particular pupil’s life generally there. It includes, among additional things, relationship among pupils and educators, pupils and learners both in in addition to outside the school. M. S. Mill (1931) opined that whichever helps to shape the human being; to make the individual what they are or impede him from becoming what they are not necessarily is section of their education. Implicitly education and learning is lifelong and ubiquitous; it’s the quantity total of all influences which go to create a person what he or she is, through birth to death. It includes the house, our neighbors, along with the street among some others.
Education is to be able to some extent some sort of deliberate planned procedure devised and executed by the instructor with the purpose involving imbuing the learner with certain details, skills, of head and body while well as modes of behavior deemed desirable. In portion it’s the learner’s personal reaction to the atmosphere in which they lives. Education features three focal items: the individual/person after whom the educator’s influences are produced to bear; the society or local community to which this individual belongs; and the whole context involving reality within which in turn the individual plus society play their part. Man is usually a social beast; he grows as a person through the particular impact of individuality on personality; plus even for his basic physical requires he depends upon what assist and cooperation regarding his fellow adult men and women. Without society and the particular mutual support and even enrichment of experiences which it provides civilization is impossible and the life associated with man, in Hobbes’ words, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. inch
One of the particular fundamental facts regarding human existence is the tension involving the pull of the particular past and typically the forward urge straight into the future, among stability and change, tradition and advancement. For effective living, man needs a group of friends of security, the area of recognized habits and connection which forms dependable relationships. This is also true of society. For it is effective functioning generally there must be a fundamental continuity of cultures and outlook which usually preserves its identification as a society and safeguards that up against the disruptive effects of change. Transformation must be for lifetime and not stationary but this modify in turn should be controlled by simply the basic customs of society. That is tradition which provides a nation its character and distinctiveness as a society. جامعة المستقبل involving tradition therefore will be obviously crucial.
This has been acknowledged from time immemorial that the conservation of traditional training has an important part to enjoy in the advancement the child. The children these days are typically the adults of another day; they must learn therefore, to inherit and perpetuate the particular beliefs and methods of life peculiar to the specific society to which they belong. With regard to every society provides the desire to protect itself not just physically but since community consciously sharing particular aims, ideals in addition to patterns of habits. This type involving education is not necessarily necessarily formal throughout schools by way of classroom instruction but that effected indirectly by way of the family in addition to through the impact on the subject of the individual involving social influences and even customs which typically the child cannot avoid. In Sierra Leone this social training included elaborate ceremonies of initiation concerning feats of stamina by which young adult men and women should prove themselves worth the community. The ultimate goal has been to produce somebody who was honest, respectful, experienced, cooperative, and who else could conform to the particular social order regarding the day. As Aristotle once stated “the constitution regarding a state can suffer if schooling is neglected. The particular citizens of a state should often be educated to accommodate the constitution from the state. The variety of character correct to a metabolic rate is the influence which continues to sustain it as it is also the state force which often originally created it” (p. I).
TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN SOCIETY
Traditional education provides both a creative and conservation function inside society; it is just a highly effective means of conserving a society’s practices, if not lifestyle. In the past the characteristics and needs associated with society played part in determining the size of education. Professor M. V. C. Jeffreys (1950) once wrote in his book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil culture the academic system may tend to reflect typically the social pattern, when social uneasiness and instability create opportunity for using schooling as an instrument of social change”(p. 7). A similar view was contributed by John Dewey (1897) who opined that through training society can produce an unique purposes, will organize its very own means and solutions and thus save itself with definiteness and economy within the direction in which usually it wishes to be able to move. Education appearances both towards the earlier and the future; inevitably it shows the traditions and even character of modern society. Traditional education can be used to prepare for modifications in society plus anticipate and prevent modifications or the effects of changes in modern society.
Traditional education conserves and hands about the customs plus ways of lifestyle which constitute the character of a modern society and maintains their unity. It also helps society to be able to interpret its capabilities in new ways in order to meet the challenges of change, seeking ways or ranges of development that are consistent with typically the traditions and traditions and will simultaneously raise society into a more complete fulfillment of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS WITHIN SIERRA LEONE
Record reveals that now there were no conventional schools where children were educated throughout Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro plus Bondo/Sande Secret Societies were thought about as institutions to teach young children. They were bush schools. And typically the education these bush schools provided had been informal. Children who else had these secret societies were deemed able to carrying away their civic duties. They became grown ups and can get married and start existence. They considered on their own as one family. Inside of other words both Secret Societies create a sense of comradeship and unity between members irrespective regarding family, clan or even ethnic affiliation. This was therefore considered that children which had not gone through these secret societies were not fully matured.
The Poro Secret Society is definitely for boys. The particular spiritual head regarding the Poro Culture is Pa Gbonu, seen only with the older graduates or even members. The actual heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct typically the activities of the institution. The senior trainers are the Pa Kashis, who usually teach and give instructions to additional initiators. The Pennsylvania Manchiyas function as teachers to the starts while the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the women and children alike along with the fresh initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages around. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos would be the senior prefects while the Sayboms are usually the prefects; and the monitors are the Gbanaboms. Informal classes are held in typically the Secret Poro Bush. The subjects taught include Creative Functional Arts, Performing Disciplines, Practical Agriculture, Treatments i. e. use of local herbs for that treatment of various ailments), warfare in addition to other skills. Inside Creative Practical Martial arts initiates are trained how to produce fishing nets, containers, mats, and carving wood and soap stones into diverse objects such because animals and individuals; in Performing Martial arts initiates are trained singing, dancing in addition to the use regarding Poro musical tools. In Practical Cultivation initiates practice gardening. Boys are educated to deal with hardship with no complaint and increase comfortable with it. As a result they can be taken to the farms involving their teachers and elders to work on pro pase basis. However in the course of the harvest season initiates could move across these farms having whatever they will need and eat with no being questioned by simply farm owners. Starts are taught to be able to respect elders plus use of guns to kill pets or animals. In a comparable vein initiates are usually taught how to be able to use guns throughout fighting in security of their neighborhoods. Other skills starts are taught contain making fish traps, fishing and hunting net, and basketry. Within the use regarding herbs initiates shell out money (some readily given) for recovery various sicknesses along with protection against adversaries, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who want to cause injury to others using herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medicine concerned. Over all starts are taught a new Language talked only by users called Ke Sornor. For example fonka trika meaning I will be talking to a person; fonka bonomi that means Talk to me. The employ of this completely new Language makes graduates very proud and even feel different by non-initiates. Graduates are available out with fresh names such as Lamp, Langba in addition to Kolerr. A college graduation ceremony climaxes the event.